• Marzano's Nine Instructional Strategies for Effective Teaching and Learning

    2. Summarizing and Note Taking

    These skills promote greater comprehension by asking students to analyze a

    subject to expose what's essential and then put it in their own words.

    According to research, this requires substituting, deleting, and keeping some

    things and having an awareness of the basic structure of the information



    * Provide a set of rules for creating a summary.

    * When summarizing, ask students to question what is unclear, clarify those

    questions, and then predict what will happen next in the text.


    Research shows that taking more notes is better than fewer notes, though

    verbatim note taking is ineffective because it does not allow time to process

    the information. Teachers should encourage and give time for review and

    revision of notes; notes can be the best study guides for tests.


    * Use teacher-prepared notes.

    * Stick to a consistent format for notes, although students can refine the

    notes as necessary.